Diabetes is a disease that occurs when the body fails to produce enough insulin or cannot use its own insulin as it should, resulting in accumulation of glucose in the blood, causing serious health issues like failure of certain organs in the body.
Diabetes gradually destroys every blood vessel in our body the ones in our heart, kidneys and eyes. The tests which are essential to confirm that you have diabetes, the doctor will order four blood tests that are done to diagnose pre-diabetes and diabetes.
- Fasting plasma glucose (FPG).
- Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)
- Haemoglobin Alc (Alc) Test
- Random Plasma (blood) Glucose.(RPG)
Fasting plasma glucose (EPG) Test
This test is helpful in diagnosing diabetes or borderline diabetes or prediabetes, if left untreated, prediabetes will develop into type-2 diabetes.
FGT or fasting glucose test is conducted in the morning time as the body is under fasting phase throughout the previous night, because for FGT test you need not drink or eat anything 10 to 12 hours before conducting the blood test.
According to the world health organisation the range of fasting glucose test results are considered normal below 6.1 mmol, /l (110mg/dl).And diabetic if it is 7.0mmol/1 and above (126 mg/dl and above)
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)
Oral glucose test (OGTT) is also called the glucose tolerance test. This test is conducted by collecting blood to measure blood glucose level. This test is lengthy process, it will take few hours to get it done. Because this test is conducted in intervals between the tests. This test will help the doctor to diagnose
- Insulin resistance
- Reactive hypoglycaemia
- Gestational diabetes in women who are pregnant.
Haemoglobin Al c Test
This test is also known as Hb lc or HBA1c test. This test serves as a basis for average blood glucose levels over the past three months, as the red blood cells life span is around 4 months. A1c test measures the percentage of haemoglobin ( a molecule in red blood cells) glycated ( or has sugar levels) If the percentage of glucose is higher in blood, then your blood sugar levels are not under control or in other words if your A1c levels are higher you are at risk for serious complications . This test is very very affective , because it provides an average readings of your blood sugar levels for past months, that helps the doctor understand how well your diabetes are controlled over time. A normal A1C level is 5.6 or below, anything above this level indicates prediabetes and A1c level at 6.5 percent indicates a person is diabetic.
Random Plasma (blood) Glucose test (RPG)
This test is taken randomly to measure the glucose levels in the blood at any time throughout the day. It does not require fasting. This test is used to screen for diabetes, usually done by pricking the finger to collect a drop of blood and then this blood is wiped on a test strip to check the glucose levels in blood. This test helps you to manage diabetes by keeping track upon the symptoms.
If you are diabetic testing your sugar levels at intervals throughout the day can help you manage diabetes and avoid complications. In adults free of diabetes, if random glucose tests are conducted throughout the day, their glucose levels remain unchanged even if they do not fast and have their meals or are on any medication. To keep diabetes away you need to maintain a healthy lifestyle with regular glucose monitoring.